Scleroderma Symptoms and Signs


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What is scleroderma?

Scleroderma is a systemic autoimmune disease that features skin inflammation
but can also affect internal organs. Symptoms of scleroderma, therefore, vary
widely from patient to patient.

Common scleroderma symptoms and signs

The key abnormality of scleroderma is inflammation of the skin that can be
manifest as redness, swelling, pain, and thickness of the involved skin areas.
Eventually, this inflammation can lead to firmness and hardness of the skin.
Typical areas of involvement include your hands, feet, face, and neck. However,
any skin site can be affected.

Another common symptom of scleroderma is color changes in your fingers in
response to exposure to cold
and sometimes to heat and emotional situations. This response is a result of
local spasm of blood vessels, typically in your
hands and feet and is referred to as Raynaud’s phenomenon.
It can cause the
fingers and toes (sometimes nose and ears) to become white, then blue, then red after cold exposures. Raynaud’s phenomenon can be mild and not require
any treatment, but it can also be severe and cause ulcerations of your fingertips
and toes, requiring medications and even surgical treatments. Often Raynaud’s
phenomenon is the early symptom of scleroderma.

Patients with scleroderma commonly have heartburn because the lower esophagus
is weakened, allowing stomach acid to reflux back into the esophagus and mouth.
This can lead to stricture of the esophagus and difficulty swallowing as well as
irritation of the throat and vocal cords.

Tiny capillary widenings on the fingers, face, tongue, lips, and chest are
also common in patients with scleroderma and are referred to as telangiectasias.
Rarely, they can be in the stomach. Telangiectasias can occasionally require laser
treatments.

The bowels are weakened when affected by scleroderma and this can lead to
constipation, diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain.

Less common scleroderma symptoms and signs

Less common symptoms of scleroderma are calcium deposits (calcinosis) in your
fingers, elbow tips, hips and elsewhere, shortness of breath from lung
involvement, weakness from muscle involvement, difficulty breathing with
exertion from pulmonary artery hypertension, and high blood pressure from kidney
involvement.

Medically reviewed by Norman Levine, MD; American Board of Dermatology

REFERENCE:

Klippel, J. H., et al. Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases, 13th Edition, Springer, 2008.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 4/4/2017

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